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EU Institutions

When it comes to the European Union institution and the way it functions, there are so many dynamic components to the entire system that differs from others such as the 28 other states. There are a total of seven European Union institutions. Those seven institutions are the European council, the European commission, the European parliament, the European Union’s council, the auditor’s court, the European Union’s court of justice and the European central bank. Each plays a key role to maintaining the union’s functionality. In this article we’ll be going over the institutions and you’ll be gaining some useful facts and information on the Institutions. With that said, we’ll be starting with the European council.

Seven European Union Institutions

European council & the European Union’s council

The proposal for a European council dates back to 1974 and the European Union was later created in 1993. It had been established as a place where the community’s top leaders like the heads of state or the government, could have serious in-depth political discussions that pertain to the lives of many. There are three different councils. They’re each different from each other. The council of Europe is tasked with safeguarding the parliamentary democracy and human rights. The headquarters for the European Union is in Brussels and the way the presidency works is that it rotates around every six months throughout the 28 member states united.

The European Union’s council doesn’t meet all the time. Their meetings depend on the topics that arise at that current point in time. These topics are discussed and handled accordingly by the most intelligent men in Europe that have the right judgement and knowledge to make the right choices for everyone. If the topic is about foreign affairs the primary 28 ministers responsible for the particular subject, meetup and discuss whatever it is that’s related to foreign affairs. During this session, the ministers of the council bounce around proposals and put into effect community legislation’s. The committee is made up of representatives who are permanently representatives of the 28 member states and help the council by making sure drafts and proposals are ready by the time the session begins.

When it comes to voting within the European Union’s council there are three processes that have to be completed when making big decisions. One of the first processes is by the voting going towards the qualified majority which means that the most qualified individuals that are in favor of something will win. So if there are 30 qualified individuals and 20 out of that 30 choose in favor of something, whatever they choose will win. The second process is similar to the first except, the simple majority side with 15 votes out of 28 wins and this process is rarely used. It’s only really used when there’s a stipulation occurring with the treaties. The third and final process is voting by unanimity.

European Commission

The second institution we’ll be covering is the European commission. It’s located in Brussels where there are over 18,000 members and then 2,500 or more people work in Luxembourg too. The research centers are located in Karlsruhe (Germany), Petten (Netherlands), Ispra (Italy) and Geel (Belgium). Currently the former Prime Minister of Luxembourg Jean-Claude Junker is the President of the European Commission. When law proposals are sent to the European parliament it is firstly managed by over 30,000 agents from the European commission, then sent out to be potentially passed as a new law. The given term for individuals who serve in this line of work is “eurocrats“. One of the very first and major responsibilities that this institution has is external trade and using its legislative initiative and important executive abilities in policies the right way. The administration is mainly done by this institution. The European commission essentially has the role of making sure European politics are carried out and prepared the right way. Preparations are done through preliminary interviews, those governments of all the states have to follow through along with various other experts who will go over the legislative text.

The European commission does not only serve as an administrator though, it also works various other ways like:

  • It puts into effect the fact that there is a budget and let the union know.
  • Makes sure the communities legislation is well executed.
  • It serves as a voice to the world of what the European Union has its attention on, particularly their concerns on what’s occurring around the world.

The European Parliament

The third institution is the European Union’s council. The European Parliament’s role has grown significantly since 1957. It sets the communities budget and can overturn a budget if it has valid reasons, the parliament can make suggestions to edit the compulsory expenditures and shift around the non-compulsory expenditures too. The European parliament allows citizens of the European Union to take part in political matters. Citizens elect their members once every 5 years. The parliament is comprised of over 751 members who were directly elected and originate from one of the 28 member states and embodied the 508 million civilians of the European Union. When it comes down to working, parliamentary committees that deal with different topics are created temporarily. These topics range from economy related topics to budgets that need to be discussed and many other topics. Its main task is to negotiate and uphold the acquisition of a position related to the treaties discussed between applying countries. That leads into the duties of each political group. Depending on the particular political group an individual is in, each group is appointed a set of duties. The parliament is made up of seven political groups. The Group of Socialists and Democrats who are in the European Parliament, European Conservatives and Reformists, Group of the European People’s Party, the Greens/European Free-Alliance Greens groups, Europe of Freedom and Democracy Group, Group of allied Liberals and Democrats for Europe and the Europeans united group of confederates. In order to create a political group, an individual would have to gather around 24 other people who’ve been elected in at least one fourth of all states. Out of the seven political groups though, The European People’s Party is said to have the most members.

The Auditors Court

This institution is located in Luxembourg. The Auditors Court is made up of 250 agents and the 28 members originate from one of all the states. The members are active for six years and as for the agents, the agents assist in controlling the budget the community is under. Its primary task is to go over whether revenues were received or not and that expenditures are carried out. This makes it the job of the Auditors Court to make sure that the European Union’s financial affairs are handled appropriately, legally and won’t get out of hand. Towards the end of each year, the Auditors Court release a financial report that’s sent out to the European Communities in order to keep everyone well informed. The report serves as a weapon to make the EU institutions guarantee funds are handled well. During that same year the Auditors Court also gives comments and opinions on various topics too since it is mandatory for the other institutions to consult with it before they’re able to adopt texts that have to do with resources and financial regulations that could affect the community. So remember, it supervises institutions under the union as well as any organization that profits from managing funds tied to the European Union. In member states this is specifically done through close collaborations with the national audit bodies. Keep in mind that the Auditors Court doesn’t have its own judicial power, so it’s not all high and mighty. Each of the institutions balances the others out.

The European Union’s Court of Justice

The court of justice is located in Luxembourg. It isn’t the European Court of Human Rights or the International Court of Justice, so keep that in mind. The only legal aspect of the union is The European Union’s Court of Justice. It serves as a guardian who keeps a watchful eye to make sure the communities legislation has no trouble and is applied the right way. There are a total of 28 judges who are each from one of all the states. These judges are chosen by legal experts who know they’re capable of the position. Aside from the judges there are 9 advocates-generals who can be renewed for a six-year term as well. The advocates have to uphold the same criteria of legit competence and independence. Leading the forefront in the public presentations, whatever affairs a judge from the court may put forth, and the advocate-general handles them accordingly.

The court is accessible to all parties whether it be a person, member of any state or community institutions. This means that it can be used to dispute concerns that may arise in the community regarding an EU institution or even a community act. So if a person gets through all of the national appeals, he/she gains the right to make an appeal to the Court of Justice to defend their right and whatever they’re there for where other Europeans will see the case. There are three primary forms of appeal. That is failure to act, appeal in abuse and/or neglect and the action of annulment. When making the final verdict, the decision is carried out by the majority of the 28 judges and is then applied right away into the member states without a second thought.

The European Central Bank

Lastly, the European central bank is the final Institution. It’s located in Frankfurt Germany. It was officially established in 1998. The European Central Bank houses a lot of the euros and is known as one of the biggest areas in the world where currency is held. It’s comprised of about 19 European Union member states. Its main goal is to make sure that euro prices are kept stable and stay within the regulations and rules of European Union’s policies that have to deal with money and the economy. This creates more job opportunities this is what this institution also strives for.